Madura known as island of salt producers, since this island has wide area used to produce salt, approximately 12.326,73 Ha or 61, 36% of national salt land (20.089 Ha). For the local inhibitant, producing salt is part of a culture that has been done for generations, besides its also as a source of their livelihood. There are two type of salt production in Madura, based on its ownership. First, local producers, implemented by local salt farmers that manage their own field or from land leases, and state-owned enterprises, PT. Garam, as the only enterprises that produce and manage salt in Indonesia. In Madura, local farmers and PT. Garam are shared location, most of the fields are sharing boundaries, and some of them have no clear distinction of the ownership. As consequences, it was reported that some conflicts between The Enterprises and local communities occurred, as a result of resources grabbing, both land or sea water to produce salt. This research indicated three region of conflict location, which are Sampang District, Pamekasan District and Sumenep District. These district are known as large-scale salt producers in Madura. Unfortunately, this conflict is often not institutionalized and identified by the State, even more neglected, which is potentially destabilizing the society. Therefore, this research aims to explore on the conflict of salt area by answering these following research obejectives (1) identifying, mapping and build spatial database of the conflicts location, (2) identifying and collecting the conflict typology and (3) promoting feasible conflict resolution based on its typology and suitable approach.
Research location is determined purposively at 3 region as salt producer in Madura Island, which are Sampang, Pamekasan dan Sumenep District. This research use primary and secondary data for the analysis. Pimary data was obtained by observation, questionnaire and interview. Secondary data was obtained from the village office and sub-district office as government representatives closest to the community, National Land Agency as government representative of land right regulation and government agency concerned with salt commodity. This research uses qualitative descriptive analysis method to describe information systematically and accurately based on facts and finding from the data, as well as the correlation between current state and phenomenon supported by quantitative data from the data collection.
We adopt the definition of conflict from (Ebegbulem 2011), as effort to achieve the goals and interest contrary with other group’s interest. The results show that there are approximately 393 ha of salt fields are in conflict status between local communities and PT. Garam. 65 ha conflict area located in Sub District Pengarengan, Sampang District, 78 ha located in Pademawu and Galis Sub District in Pamekasan, and 250 ha in Gapura and Kalianget Sub District, Sumenep. To validate our definition, we counter check our finding with the Deputy of Conflicts and Disputes Settlement, National Land Agency, and it is mentioned that based on The Regulation of Head of NLA Nr. 3 year 2011, our findings can be categorized as conflicts based on NLA definition. The conflicts typology mostly caused by claims of a group of salt farmers incorporated in community movements, which are People’s Movement for Land Acquisition (GRPT) in Sampang and Pamekasan, “Tanah Leluhur” Movement and Al-Jihad Movement in Sumenep that prosecute their right of land that currently being occupied by PT. Garam. We also find that these land conflicts affected socio-political stability in Madura. Some demonstrations were documented occurred in the area of conflicts. Up to now, PT. Garam has implemented strategies to reduce the conflicts such as sharing profit of salt production with the communities, implement land leasing system, sharing technology, marketing support as a buyer for the farmer’s product employ the farmers trought diversification unit of PT Garam.
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